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Bio Gas-Bio Mass

Biogas typically produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source and is a type of Biofuel.

Biomass is biological material derived from plants or plant-based materials. Biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel.

Biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials and recycled waste and is environmentally friendly. Biogas can be used as a low-cost fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in modern waste management facilities where it can be used to run any type of heat engine, to generate either mechanical or electrical power.

Types of Biogas:

  • One type of biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and crops which comprises primarily methane & CO? and small amount of H?S and siloxanes.
  • Other principal type of biogas is created by gasification of wood or other biomass which comprises primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane.

Uses of Biogas:

  • Anaerobic digestion inactivates pathogens and parasites.
  • The gases methane, hydrogen & carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen which allows biogas to be used as a fuel
  • It can also be used in anaerobic digesters where it is typically used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.
  • Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles.
  • It can also be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane

Schematic Diagram of a typical Community Biogas Plant (Capacity- 130 m³)

Biogas Technology in Bangladesh:

  • Cattle dung available from 22 million cows and buffaloes is nearly 220 million Kg or 0.22 million tons
  • One Kg of cow dung/wastage can produce 0.036 m3 of biogas
  • Daily 500-600 Kg fertilizer can be produced from a biogas slurry (3,000Kg)
  • Community biogas plant mainly 80-130m³
  • A substantial amount of biogas can also be produced from human and other animal excreta, garbage and water hyacinth.